The founder of the state of Bahawalpur was Nawab Bahawal khan Abbasi i. The Abbasi family ruled over the state for more than 200 years (1748 to 1954). During the rule of the last Nawab Sir Sadiq Muhammad khan Abbasi v, Bahawalpur State was merged with Pakistan in 1954. Bahawalpur was formerly the capital of the state and now is the district and divisional headquarters of Bahawalpur division. The population is 403,408; Saraiki is the local language of the area while Urdu, English and Punjabi are also spoken. Bahawalpur is located south of the Sutlej River and it lies in the Cholistan region. It is situated 90 km from Multan, 420 km from Lahore and about 700 km from the national capital Islamabad.
The royal house of Bahawalpur is said to be of Arabic origin citation needed and claim descent from Abbas, progenitor of the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad and Cairo. The state acceded to the dominion of Pakistan on 7 October 1947 and was merged into the province of West Pakistan on 14 October 1955. Daud Farooq is one the great personalities of the city.